APA Guidelines


1.      The first line should start at the left margin and indent following lines ½ inch (3.8 centimeters).

2.      List authors with last name first, followed by first and middle initials.

3.      If there is no author listed, note source by title.

4.      Publication date should be placed in parenthesis, followed by a period.

5.      Always quote the full title, including any subtitles.

6.      A period should be used, followed by one space, to separate author, publication date, title, and information about publication.

Sample Reference - Examples of Entries 

Journal Articles with Continuous Paging

Smith, A. (2005). Dealing with disabilities. Journal of American Health, 25, 35-44.

Journal Articles with Separate Paging

Johnson, P.T. & Jones, R.W., Ph.D. (1998). Risk Analysis: Protecting Your Small Business. Business Daily Journal, 66 (7), 107-121.

Monthly Magazine Articles

Asner, P.J. (2010, September). Living with Autism. Monthly Mirror, 177(4), 65-77.

Newspaper Article

Rodriguez, J. (2010, April 9). Surviving Cancer. Stillwater NewsPress, p. 3:5.

Book with Single Author

Bancroft, B. (2009). A Short History of Everything. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace Press.

Book with Multiple Authors

Libby, J.G., and Roberts, S.W. (2005). Living in Modern Times. New York, NY: Modern Press.

An Edition that is not the First Edition

Short, B.G., and Richards, S.R. (2006). Seeking and Finding (3rd ed.)/ San Francisco, CA: Smith/Jones.

Original Selection from an Edited Collection

Jackson, P.B. (2007). Collected Short Stories of Various Cultures. In B. Jones and P.B. Jackson (Eds.). Living in Fear (pp. 89-103). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Article in an Encyclopedia or Other Reference Work

Hacker, D. (2008). Use Pronouns With Care. N. Sommers and T. Jehn (Eds.), A Pocket Style Manual (pp. 32-36). Boston, MA., St. Martin’s Press.

Motion Picture

Spielberg, S. (Producer) & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion Picture]. [With S. Neill, L. Dern, and J. Goldblum]. United States. Universal.

Articles from Online Journals

Walters, S.D., and Peters, A.G., M.Ed. (2005). Building Design and Utopian Space. North American Builder, 109(10). 23-55. Retrieved from http://www.NABuilder.org/journals/

Articles from Online Encyclopedia or Other Reference Works

Jackson, B.J. (2011). Mechanics of Motion. Compton’s Encyclopedia online. Retrieved from http://search.ComptonsEncyclopedia.com/

Articles from Professional Website, Scholarly Project, or Information Database

British Archives Association. (2011, September 15). Quantifying Collections. Retrieved from http://www.baa.gov/baa


Online Posting from Blog or Discussion Group

Oscar, P.T. (2011, December 12). Re: Hate Crimes and Misdemeanors. [Blog message]. Retrieved from http://www.uco.edu/EDUCATION/blogs/


Important Links:


1, APA Style

2. Purdue OWL

3. CiteFast